H.R.H. Sultan Sharif Maulana Paduka Ahmad Carpenter Arpa-V
Ibni Maharaja Adinda Taup Angging (Anddin) Zein Ul-Abidin
SULTAN SULUK NEGARA
The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo-Sabah is a Monarchial Islamic (Muslim) State founded in the 1400’s hundreds by Abu’Bkr (Zein Ul-Abidin) with the latter’s reigning title as Sultan Sharif Ul-Hashim after he had married Parmursuli, the daughter of the Tomaoi Baginda. The latter who migrated from Sumatra bringing the first firearms (Lantaka style brass about a foot and a half long) to Sulu in 1320.
In 1402, Tomaoi Baginda embraced Islam and held the title as Raja Baginda by the influence of Abu’Bkr /Zein Ul-Abidin, the latter who had established the Sultanate of Brunei in 1363 with the reigning title as Sultan Mohamad Shah. After Raja Baginda’s death, Abu’Bkr took over the Political authority of his father-in-law and established the Sultanate of Sulu, the first Institutional Government in the Muslim national archipelago (now Philippine Islands). He took on five differential titles as, Sultan Maulana Paduka Sharif Ul-Hashim meaning a Ruler, Protector, Eastern King and a Sharif (descendant of the Prophet) from the Hashimite tribe of Saudi Arabia, respectively.
Priory, Abu’Bkr was in Seri (present capital of Brunei), known to use the name as Abdulla Magrib and who married the daughter of the Chieftain Iskander. Establishing the Sultanate of Bruney-Bulungan Johore or present day Brunei, he took the reigning title as Sultan Mohamad Shah in 1363.
Abu’Bkr/Zein Ul-Abidin Mohamad Shah in 1325 was known as Mohadum, Originated from Taif Arabia, he was a Sufi master teacher and trader who had been schooled in a secret school in Bengal, A school for “Avatars” previously located in India called Helious. He was the third Makdum in the Makdumin Age to have arrived in Sulu.
He was preceeded by two previous Makdums: Makdum Karim or Karim Ul-Makdum in approx.1310 and Tuan Masha’ika in aprox.1250. Tuan Mash’ika first introduced Islam with his small settlement of Muslim family by example when the people of Sulu were still worshipping stones and being animistic.
While Karim Ul-Makdum re-inforced Islam with its influence extending up to the time of the ruling dynasties of the 1417 Paduka Pahala (Batara-Eastern King), Ma-hala-chi”ih (Western King) and Paduka Prabu or King of the Mountain Ka-La-Ba-Ting who were muslims based on the names of their children, and who ruled groups of settlements or large villages.. as did Tuhan Maqbalu in approx. 1300 who was a local Chieftain of a small muslim Kingdom of Trengganu by which later the Bud Dato Tombstone discovery in 1924 indicating the year 1303, three years after the known reign of the said Chieftain Tuhan Maqbalu, the slim possibility, if any, of being Tuan Masha”ika.
All these imply the strong probability that Tuan Maqbalu was a ruler or Chief in the area of Trengganu (Bud Dato) Sulu along with other ruling Muslim families, before the establishment of the Sultanate of Sulu by Sultan Sharif Ul-Hashim (Abu’Bkr / Zein Ul-Abidin) , the third Makdum or Mohadum who had came to Sulu and the Malayas promulgating Islam and Qur’anic studies (Madrassah) throughout the Malayas far reaching Selurong-Luzon and far reaching Johore-Singapore, having its peoples embracing Islam.
The Sulu Sultanate Islamic State was the first institutional government that expanded into strings of Sultanates throughout the Muslim National Archipelago (Philippine Islands) in the approx.1426- (Death of Raja Baginda) until the1480s and onward, whereby Abu’Bkr took over the political authority of his father-in-law, the Raja, that had dominion over territories in the Sulu seas far reaching Kalimantan (southern Borneo). Using the architectural system of the Arabian Sultanate, Abu’Bkr established the Sulu Sultanate and renamed himself ; “Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashim Abu’Bkr”, embellishing his name with no less than five consecutive deferential titles: “Paduka” is a term for “Eastern King”, “Maulana” is a word of Arabic roots, meaning “Protector”, Mahasari” stands for “His Majesty”, “Sharif” is an Arabic word for a descendant of the Prophet-Nabi Mohammad (Salailahu Alai Wassalam), the latter who became the leader of the Hashimite tribe in Taif Arabia establishing the Nation of Islam by the completed and final message of Allah. While descendants in the middle-east are usually referred to as “Sayyid”, and “Sultan” is the Arabic word for “Ruler or Prince” by which the Prophet was the very first Sultan of the Nation of Islam.
In 1678, the Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Muhy’iddin, seeked the assistance of the Sultan of Sulu (a relative of previous Sulu Sultan Patara Shah or Pangiran Tenggah/Panguan Tindig, the latter being the son of prior Brunei Sultan Mohamad Hassan) in helping suppressed a ten year rebellion by the self-proclaimed Sultan Mobin in North Borneo. Two Brunei Nakhodas, Sayyid Nakhoda Perkasa Angging and Sayyid Nakhoda Sangkalang , led about 600 Sulu warriors in suppressing the said rebellion in North Borneo. These Nakhodas were, if not, the grandsons of the very first Sultan of Brunei through Sultan Ahmad (Amir-Alatas-Uddin), the latter who was succeeded by his other son, Seri Ali. In 1704, North Borneo was given as a gift to the Nakhoda/s, and as a tribute to the Sulu warriors, North Borneo (as by the Nakhodas) was ceded to the Sultan of Sulu as ratified by the Brunei Sultan.Thus, making the Sulus, contingious to Kalimantan, then.
Hearing of the possibility of North Borneo being further ceded by then Sultan Sahab’uddin to the Spanaish government, Sayyid Nakhoda Perkasa Angging (Maharaja Anddin) was sent to the Sulus by the Brunei Sultan, given the Brunei Maharaja State Official Flag and the Twin-headed Alligator/Crocodile Flag as the twin authority of the Brunei Sultan and as the Maharaja in the Sulus to guard against farther cession of North Borneo and as an assured line of the Royal family descendancy in the Sulu Sultanate. While Sayyid Nakhoda Sangkalang, stayed in North Borneo with his men guarding against encroachment from its southern part of Kalimantan, occupied by Dutch colonial forces. Sulu Sultan Sahab’uddin instead ceded Palawan to the Spanish government in 1705.
Sayyid Nakhoda Perkasa Angging (Maharaja Anddin) as the Brunei Maharaja in the Sulus settled at Siasi, Sulu naming his settlement there as “Subah Buaya”, presently called Duhol-Duhol or Tong-Tong by the locals. Marrying Mahandun or Apuh Andun (a niece of Brunei Sultan Nasiruddin) at Karongdong-Luuk Sulu, Maharaja Anddin (Angging), his brother-in-law (Muwalil Wasit) later became the Sulu Sultan, in the reigning title, Sultan Jamalul Kiram-I in 1823. The latter’s son was Mohamad Fadlun or better known as Sultan Pulalun in 1842.
In 1859, Sultan Pulalun proclaimed his first cousin Crowned Prince or Pertama and Heir-Apparent, Maharaja Adinda Taup, the son of Maharaja Anddin. Given the Maharaja Seal and flag of Jolo, Maharaja Adinda Taup fought the defensive confrontations against Spanish encroachments far reaching the southern coast of Selurong or the Island of Luzon.
The name Maharaja was given to only one of the lineages in the Royal family of Brunei, Sayyid Nakhoda Perkasa Angging (Maharaja Anddin) who was sent to Sulu given the Brunei Maharaja State official flag, and the Brunei twin-authority (twin headed crocodile/alligator) flag as Brunei Maharaja in the Sulu residented in Subah Buaya-Siasi as an assured line of Royal descendancy from Brunei’s very fist Sultan and of Sulu (one and only person) and as a result, Sultans under this lineage Append, “Maharaja Adinda” as a title to the beginning of His name; Maharaja Adinda Taup, the son of Maharaja Anddin, an assured line of descendancy of Royalty to the Sulu Throne.
In 1862, the Spanish government presented a Spanish protocol treaty by which Sultan Pulalun granted Spanish sovereignty or pretensions of sovereignty over Jolo and its dependencies; whereby Sultan Pulalun transferred his seat to the hinterlands.
On January 22, 1878, two British subjects, Gustavos Baron Von Overbeck and Alfred Dent, Esq. came to Jolo for the Sulu Sultan’s permission to lease North Borneo from the latter. Jamalul Agdam(Azam) presented himself as the Sultan of Sulu, leasing and delivering North Borneo to the two British Subjects, signing his name as Sultan Jamalul Alam, the son of Sultan Pulalun; without the latter’s knowledge and consent. Evident of Sultan Pulalun writing a letter of revocation to the lease, by which was never heeded upon.
In 1881, Badaruddin-II acclaiming to be the son of Sultan Jamalul Alam, proclaimed himself as the next Sultan of Sulu, although the latter known to be childless.
Other Usurpers as Alimuddin, Harun Ar-Rashid and Amirul Kiram Awal-II came forth acclaiming to be Sultan of Sulu, undermining the existence of the reigning Sultan Pulalun. Alimuddin was driven off to Cotabato, but also retracted his acclaimation there and went to Tawi-Tawi till his death. Harun Ar-Rashid was proclaimed Sultan of Sulu by the Spanish government in Manila for the Spanish intents and purposes, but, was also driven off to Palawan were he retired.
In 1884, Amirul Kiram Awal-II was proclaimed as Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II and Sultan of Sulu by his direct Followers acclaiming the said sultan as the son of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-I (Muwalil Wasit). However, it is untrue because Sultan Jamalul Kiram-I (Muwalil Wasit) is the father of Sultan Pulalun.
Usurpers since 1878 and thru 1915 as, Jamalul Alam (Agdam/Azam), Badaruddin-II, Alimuddin, Harun Ar-Rashid and until Amirul Kiram Awal-II (Sultan Jamaulu Kiram-II) the latter, in 1915, who surrendered his temporal powers to the U.S. administration in exchanged for a lifetime pension and/or positions of his direct followers in the U.S. Department of Mindanao and Sulu, with other signatories delivering the Sulus to be under U.S. Sovereignty by Haji Buto Abdulbakie Rasul and his brother, Gulamu Rasul. Said Usurpers were, if not, indeed Usurpers. Evident of the visible presence of the reigning Sultan Pulalun and his Adinda Heir-apparent (Maharaja Adinda Taup) meeting with Major-Gen, Jens Doe of the U.S. military administration and government in 1899 (Plan towards having Usurper-Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II in stepping down).
In 1915, Governor Frank W. Carpenter of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu under the U.S. Government Administration, signed the Carpenter Agreement with Usurper-Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II, the latter in giving up his temporal powers in exchanged for a lifetime monetary pension.
The signing of the 1915 Carpenter Agreement (Memorandum) was in no way a default or abrogation of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. It was, if not, a desperate attempt by the Americans to dissolved and abrogate the Sulu Sultanate State, with the intention to restore the reigning Sultan Pulalun, but, instead gave the seat to a Highest Spiritual Leader. That Highest Spiritual leader as by the voice of the people as concurred by Sultan Pulalun, which was ratified by the Sultan of Brunei, happened to be Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa, the son of Maharaja Adinda Taup; the latter being the crown prince and heir-apparent of Sultan Pulalun.
Naturally so, these concurrences, and of a successor is based on the respect of the doctrine of Religion and government, indivisible in nature in an Islamic State, by which the Americans were unfamiliar. In deducing a sultan-successor to Highest spiritual Leader, does not degrade a Sultan’s position. A successor is a successor, as a Sultan is a Sultan; moreover, without giving up any of his two powers: Temporal-political powers and Ecclesiastical-religious (sacred) powers, Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa.
Successor-Sultan and Highest Spiritual Leader, Sharif Imam Ul-Alam Arpa, with the support of the U.S. Governor of Mindanao and Sulu, implemented the development of the Sulus and the Literacy Campaign, as enforced by his brothers Panglima Julkarnain Taup with Panglima Lakibul Taup. Thus, Sulu began to have roads, buildings, water system and waterfronts.
Although under foreign administrations, Sharif Sultan Imam Ul Alam and his heir/s, H.R.H. Sultan Sharif Maulana Paduka Ahmad Carpenter Arpa-V, to never sacrifice His seal and ancestral flags of authority left by the dignity and authority of His Highness’ forefathers and forebears.
The Signing of the 1915 Carpenter Agreement-memorandum was in no way a default of the Sulu Sultanate. To default is to acquis or estopled, or surrender and not to pursue a claim. Moreover, with the 1921 Sulu Sultanate’s Declaration of Rights and Purposes, its peoples will to rather declare themselves back a constitutional Sultanate than of being incorporated into the Commonwealth government or soon to be Philippine Republic, submitted to the U.S. Congress in 1926, and by the Beacon Bill of 1926 by U.S. Senator Beacon..Clearly indicative of the Sulu Sultanate did not Lost its sovereignty by default.
In April 17, 1917, Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa had a son who was named by Governor Carpenter, as CARPENTER ARPA-I, placing five American silver dollars on the child’s chest, symbolic of the Sulu Sultanate five (5) territories. Carpenter Arpa-I was recruited in 1936 into with the Moro Constabulary then later in 1938, with the U.S. Army Forces in the Far East or USAFFE until he was incorporated with the new Philippine Constabulary in 1946. He could not possibly come forth to claim the legacy of his forefathers due to serving with the military forces under foreign powers that could possibly have him facing charges of mutiny and sedition, if he did come forth.
Col.-Sharif Carpenter Apa-I and his brother Ambassador-plenipotentiary Col,-Sharif Pullong “Fadlun-Pulalun” Arpa were doing acts of sovereignty for the Sultanate Muslim peoples, particularly of Mindanao and Sulu while in-service with the Moro Constabulary, U.S. Army forces in the Far East and the later Philippine Constabulary. Moreover, Col,-Sharif Pullong “Fadlun-Pulalun” Arpa becoming the first, if not, the one and only Philippine-Ambassador-Plenipotentiary with powers to enter into Treaties with foreign countries with implied powers in not necessarily consulting with the President from 1957 to 1964 while based at Cairo-Egypt, whereby entreaties, particularly with Muslim countries in contravention to previous President’s policy, as President Quezon’s to attract the Mindanao and Sulu away from the Muslim world and Malaysia. Col-Ambassador Sharif Pullong “Fadlun-Pulalun” Arpa establishing foreign diplomatic relations to Muslim countries and sponsoring with his counterpart Senator Domacao Alonto based in Maguindanao-Mindanao, Muslims from Mindanao and Sulu to the prestigious Al-Adzhar University in Cairo-Egypt. Its graduates as Ustadz Abdulbakie Abubakar (our present Grand Mufti) and many others over the years as Ustadz Sharif Jullabi with other present religious leaders. Now Benefitting our peoples and working as OFW or Overseas Contract Workers to Muslim Countries to the present.
While Col.-Sharif Carpenter Arpa-I, His Highness’ father established the Sultanate of Zamboanga and Basilan (Sultanate Moro Capital with Zamboanga for Mindanao-Maguinadanao and Basilan for the Sulus) in 1967 that later become a sort of “Bridge” between the Government of the Philippines or GRP and the Moro National Liberation Front or MNLF, being instrumental with Admiral Espaldon of the GRP and Chairman Nur Misuari of the MNLF for Autonomy of the Mindanao and Sulu, However, resulted with the Tripoli Agreement for the granting of the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao, but still being under Philippine Republic’s sovereignty. Eight months then after, the GRP under the Marcos regime retracted from the said agreement, and the MNLF rebellion ensued to have continued.
In 1996, a final Peace Agreement was reach between the GRP and the MNLF for a supposedly and totally autonomous Mindanao and Sulu. However, covering only certain areas as Sulu, Cotabato, Lanao to name a few and still possibly under GRP administering powers. It was Autonomy only by name. This prompted some MNLF members to have detached from the MNLF establishing their own, called, the MILF-Moro Islamic Liberation Front continuing a rebellion for a total Independent Mindanao.
The Sultanate of Zamboanga and Basilan established by His Highness’ Father, without registration from the foreign Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission nor as an NGO was a clear Manifestation of the Sulu Sultanate’s authority and acts of sovereignty and political will by the Royal Family of His Highness, upon the Muslim Sultanate lands and territories, and territories as by consanguinity that had been ruled by His Highness’ forefathers and forebears.
In 1865, the United States Consul to Brunei, Claude Lee Moses obtained a 10 year lease for the territory of North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. However, the post-civil war of the United States, the United States wanted nothing to do with Asian colonies. So, Moses sold his rights to the Hong Kong-based American Trading. Besieged with financial difficulties, the company had, to its rights on North Borneo Consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Hong Kong, Gustavos Baron Von Overbeck. Von Overbeck managed to get a 10-year renewal of the lease from the Temmenggong of Brunei and a similar treaty from the Sultan of Sulu on January 22, 1878.To finance his plans for North Borneo, Von Overbeck found financial backing from the Dent brothers-Alfred and Eduard Dent. However, he was unable to interest his government in the territory. Von Overbeck withdrew in 1880, leaving Alfred Dent in control. Dent was supported by Sir Rutherford Alcock and Admiral Sir Harry Keppel.
In July 1881, Alfred Dent and his brother formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd., and obtained an official royal charter on November 1, of the same year. In May 1882, the British North Borneo Chartered Company replaced the Provisional Association. Sir Rutherford Alcock became the first president, and Alfred Dent became managing director.
Inspite some diplomatic protests by the Dutch, Spanish and Sarawak Governments, the British North Borneo Company proceeded to organized settlements and administration of the territory. The company sudsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the Sultan of Brunei, expanding the territory under control to the, Putatan River in May 1884, the Padas district in November 1884, the Kawang River in February 1885, the Mantanani islands in April 1885 and additional minor Padas territories in March 1898.
In 1888, North Borneo together with Sarawak and Brunei became a protectorate of Great Britain. Its administration, however, remained entirely in the hands of the British North Borneo Company, with the British crown (government) only reserving control of foreign relations.
On January 7, 1883, a letter from the British Secretary of State for foreign affairs, Lord Granville, confirms the position that the “Takeover” of the British over North Borneo-Sabah, a Sulu Sultanate territory was a lease and not a purchase.
It states: “The British charter (representing the British North Borneo Company) therefore differs essentially from the previous charters granted by the crown…..in the fact that the crown in the present case assumes no dominion or sovereignty over the territories occupied by the Company, nor does it purport to grant to the Company powers of government there over; it merely conveys upon the persons associated the status and incidents of a body corporate, and recognizes the grants of territory and the powers of government made and delegated by the Sultan in whom the sovereignty remains vested.
It differs also from previous charters in that it prohibits, instead of grants, a general monopoly of trade. As regards the general features of the undertaking, it is to be observed that the territories granted to the Company have been for generations under the government of the Sultanate of Sulu and Brunei, with whom Great Britain has had treaties of peace and commerce.”
In retrospect, the British Foreign Affairs Communique conceded that the matter of sovereignty remained vested with the Sultan of Sulu, and could not be delegated to any party because the Deed of 1878 expressly prohibits it. Perhaps the thorniest item in the North Borneo-Sabah/Sulu agenda was whether the Overbeck=Dent pact with the Sultan of Sulu was a lease or sale. Scholarly sources, including those officially issued by Britain and the United States, pointed out that the sovereignty over North Borneo, now Sabah, was never, at anytime in the past and the present relinquished in favor of any person, organization, or entity. Thus, the said 1878 Deed and agreement was merely a lease. Legally and technically, it remains to this day as the exclusive property of the Sultan of Sulu. This statement confirms the observation that the transfer of rights made by the lessees to the British North Borneo Company was Ab-initio, flawed and illegal. Thus, should have no binding effect nor applicability.
Specifically, the Deed of 1878 clearly mentioned that, “The rights and powers hereby leased shall not be transferred to another nation or company of other nationality”, same theme discussed in 1963 when a negotiation was made in London with Britain for the recovery of North Borneo. The British in defense of their own arguement, insisted the covenant entered into by Von Overbeck and Dent with the Sultan of Sulu was a sale and not a lease. Even for example , whereby the 1915 Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II giving up his temporal powers to the U.S. Governor of Mindanao and Sulu in exchanged for a lifetime pension, does not possibly abrogate the Sultanate State without the concurrences of the reigning Sultan Pulalun and his heir-apparent, Maharaja Adinda Taup. And the latter’s son, Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa who replaced Sultan Jamaul Kiram-II does not possibly abrogate the Sultanate nor dissolved it into being in default. Moreover, the Sultante Throne being succeeded by a successor. Likewise for example, North Borneo could not be ceded to another country other than an Islamic State and without the concurrences of both the Sulu and Brunei (as by consanguinity) Sultantes.
A strong proof in favor of the Sultanate was when U.S. Governor-General Francis B. Harrison on February 27, 1947 furnished the Philippine Vice-President and foreign affairs secretary, Elpidio Quirino, a photostat copy of the Lease Treaty document, which was latter translated from Malay language and the Arabic script by Professor H. Otley Bayer of the University of the Philippines, moreover, Overbeck and Dent, in a statement before the Royal Colonial Institute on May 12, 1885, admitted that the deal they forged with the rightful owners of North Borneo did not forfeit the sovereign rights of the Sultan of Sulu and of Brunei over the territories administered by the British North Borneo Company.
Dent declared openly: “As to the charter, some friends of the enterprise seem to believe that the enormous powers we hold were given by Her Majesty the Queen. It is not so at all. All our powers were derived entirely from the Sultan of Brunei and Sulu, and what the British government did was simply to incorporate us by Royal Charter, thus, recognizing our powers, which recognition is to us, of course, of vital importance.” Clearly, the said territory of North Borneo-Sabah do belongs to the Sultan of Sulu and Brunei, and to the present, the sovereignty of the Sultanate of Sulu/Mindanao was never lost nor by default.
Although in a sense, North Borneo had been since 1888 a British protectorate, and although after liberation from the Japanese in 1946, a British military administration unit ran the government, it was not until July 10, 1946 that the British North Borneo chartered company transferred all its rights and obligations under the lease, to the British crown. When the British colonial office accepted the responsibility of running the small war-scarred country, the Company was dissolved and the youngest British colony was born.
Shortly after British assertion of sovereignty over North Borneo, the government of the Philippine Republic, administering upon the Sulu/Mindanao Sultanate lands, acted on two fronts: Firstly, the cession order was denounced by Harrison, the former U.S. governor-general of Philippines that July 10, 1946 was six days after the Philippine Independence-July 4, 1946, “A rather opportunity filed” as a “unilateral act in violation of human rights”. Secondly, three GRP or Philippine congressmen, Diosdado Macapagal, Arsenio Lacson and Arturo Tolentino sponsored a Resolution in the GRP legal national territorial stand over the Sulu/Mindanao “urging the formal institution” of GRP claims to part of North Borneo-sabah, a Sulu territory. In 1962, a unanimous resolution urging the Philippine President to “Recover” the Sulu territory of North Borneo-Sabah into with Philippine sovereignty, supposedly consistent with international law and procedure. So, in September 1962 a “Deed of Cession” was reportedly entered into between a supposed Sultan of Sulu (acclaiming sovereignty over North Borneo-Sabah) and the Philippine President. The said Sultan of Sulu transferring his supposed sovereignty to the Philippine government thru an irrevocable Power-of-Atty for Philippine claims over North Borneo-Sabah.
Having thus acquired “all rights and interest” of that supposed Sultan of Sulu, Ismail Kiram, and acting on the unanimous congressional resolution, adverted to, the Republic of the Philippines, through its President, filed a claim “to the disputed North Borneo portions”. The claim remained unsolved, if not dead.
Then another “Deed of Cession” in 1969, by that irrevocable Power-of-Atty to the Philippine government, might be the understanding of that supposed Sultan of Sulu that the original successor to the Sulu Sultanate in 1915 deduced to Highest Spiritual Leader, have through the years lost whatever rights of sovereignty previously had, but unknowingly that the heirs had to have gone to parallel sovereignty due to foreign sovereign powers administering upon the Sultanate lands and territories, ceded by usurper-sultan Jamalul Alam (Agdam/Azam) in the 1878 lease treaty and the 1915 usurper-sultan Jamalul Kiram-II in the Carpenter Memorandum Agreement while the reigning Sultan Pulalun and his crown prince-heir apparent, Maharaja Adinda Taup were still reigning at the hinterlands.
Only after the 1915 Carpenter Memorandum, whereby Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II stepped down surrendering his temporal powers to the Americans, that Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa replaced the latter and nonetheless succeeding from Sultan Pulalun through Maharaja Adinda Taup, the father of the said Sharif Sultan.
The 1962 claim by the Kirams as the supposed Sultan of Sulu giving an irrevocable Power-of-Atty to the Philippine government for Philippine claims over North Borneo-sabah in the basis of the 1939 Macaskie decision of the British high court at Jesselton (Kota Kanibalu) North Borneo-sabah, the decision, a mistake in total disregard to the historical fact that the usurper-Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II was replaced by the said Highest Spiritual Leader and Sharif Sultan, and the fact that the said usurper-sultan was childless and had no heir.
The supposed heir/s of the 1915 usurper-Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II comported themselves after the latter’s death in 1936, acclaiming that the said sultan was the son of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-I.(Muwalil Wasit), Which is not true because the latter is the father of Sultan Pulalun.
After the death of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II on June 7, 1936 during the U.S. Administration, Philippine President Quezon issued on September 20, 1936 a memorandum regarding the administration of affairs in Mindanao and Sulu. The President served notice that he would not allow anymore Sultan or Datu to exercise powers of sovereignty or government-Sultanate in Mindanao and Sulu. This was one of the reason why the original heirs and of Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa had to go at parallel sovereignty and to what limits, for the Sultanate peoples of Sulu/Mindanao under foreign powers administrations, and these said heir/s could not possibly contend that the Sultanate have still its continuing existence.
The Kirams, from whatever descendancy, filed in 1957 a civil suit in the high court at North Borneo under British administration, then presided by Chief Justice Macaskie in the 1939 decision, in order to obtain a declaration from that court, that as private heir/s, supposedly of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II, they were entitled to receive the yearly payment of 5,000 Malayan dollars stipulated in the 1878 contract of the lease treaty agreement of Sultan Jamalul Alam (Agdam/Azam) and increased to 5,300 dollars under a confirmatory Deed executed on April 22, 1903. The court decision was based on the 1939 Macaskie decision of the court holding that the 1878 contract was a cession in perpetuity; that the only right was the yearly payment; that these supposed heir/s in 1962 and in 1969 gave an irrevocable Power-of-Atty to the Philippine government in transferring their supposed sovereignty to the Philippine Republic for the latter’s claims over North Borneo-sabah to be under Philippine sovereignty. These said heirs manifested to the Philippine government that in 1957, “they initially filed the claim in 1939”, which was unlikely, for in September 20, 1936, President Quezon of the first Philippine Republic under U.S. Commonwealth government issued a directive in a memorandum that served notice that he would not allow any Sultan or Datu to exercise powers of sovereignty or Sultanate government in Mindanao and Sulu. Evident of why the rightful heirs of the 1915 successor-Sultan and Highest Spiritual Leader (Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa) had to go at parallel sovereignty, recruited as Moro constabulary Officers, and then as Captains in the U.S. Army Forces in the Far East based at Manila away from Mindanao and Sulu, and later retiring with the then Philippine Constabulary.
The Philippine government, in its claim over North Borneo-Sabah, claimed that the supposed heirs of the 1915 Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II abided to the said memorandum directive of President Quezon as indicated by Philippine Senator Sumulong; that, the Philippine government in 1915 was the successor in sovereignty to the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo-Sabah that had supposedly passed out of existence, that the Philippine government was entitled to received the yearly payments of the lease treaty agreement, but having allowed Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II receiving it since 1915, and having made no claim to receive it after the death of the said Sultan, and a Philippine court having declared the plaintiffs to be the private heirs of the said Sultan entitled to the yearly payments, the Philippine government must have deemed to have waived its right to the yearly payments in favor of the private heirs of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II.
These said heirs having accepted the said decision which declared the 1878 lease treaty-contract to be a cession in perpetuity, and having issued receipts in writing acknowledging the yearly payments to be cession monies, how can these said heirs say that the said contract was a mere lease. And having accepted the said decision that declared these said heirs have only the right to receive the yearly payments, how can they (said heirs) now contend that they have the right to terminate the 1878 lease treaty contract which they now alleged to be a mere lease and demand for the restoration of North Borneo as a sovereign State under five contending Kiram families, each one claiming to be the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo. These said heirs (Kirams) having accepted the said decision which declared them to be mere private heirs entitled to 1/24 of the yearly payment, how could, it be in 1962 claimed to be the new Sultan of Sulu and as such empowered to represent the Sultanate of Sulu in ceding North Borneo-Sabah to be under Philippine sovereignty.
These supposed heirs of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II who through their lawyer wrote in February 1962 to the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs offering to transfer their claim of sovereignty over North Borneo to the Philippine government, reserving to themselves their proprietary claims, this offer was agreed to by Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal and so, to give semblance of legality to the transfer of sovereignty sometime in September 1962, it was proclaimed that the Sultanate of Sulu is existing with the Kirams (Ismail Kiram) as the Sultan of Sulu and as such he signed the Deed of cession transferring the claim of sovereignty to North Borneo-Sabah to the Republic of the Philippines. It was made to appear that the Sultanate of Sulu transfered, its sovereignty to North Borneo-Sabah, to another sovereign State, the Republic of the Philippines. It was designed to produce the effects of a treaty of cession just like the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898, whereby Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States of America.
Can the President of the Philippines enter into such treaty of cession without submitting it for ratification by the Philippine Senate. It is clear that under Philippine constitution, such a treaty can not take effect until ratified by the necessary 2/3 vote in the Senate….if the Treaty of Paris whereby Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States had to be ratified by the U.S. Senate (which it should), how can Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal dispense with the constitutional requirements of the Philippine Senate ratification for this cession of North Borneo-Sabah by the Sultanate of Sulu to the Philippine Republic.
In the Kiram’s case, sovereignty as such was not in issue in the case referred to as a civil suit at the high court of North Borneo-Sabah. The Kirams filed a claim for proprietary rights as the supposed private heir/s of the 1915 Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II….even if sovereignty was in issue, that court under international law did not have the competence to rule on the question of sovereignty. So, whatever Decision that British court, by where Chief justice Macaskie, may have promulgated does not bind the Philippine Republic or the Sultanate of Sulu in that treaty of cession by the Kirams in ceding North Borneo-Sabah to be under Philippine sovereignty. The Macaskie decision only relates to a group of supposed heir/s of Sultan Jamalul Kiram-II and not the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo-Sabah.
RIGHTFUL GOVERNMENT-RIGHTFUL HEIR
The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo-Sabah is constitutionally existing to this day with the rightful heir by succession and by heredity from its very first Sultan, Sultan Sharif Ul-Hashim (Abu”Bkr, Zein Ul-Abidin Mohamad Shah) and to the present Sultan, Sultan Sharif Maulana Paduka Ahmad Carpenter Arpa-V ibni Maharaja Adinda Taup Angging (Anddin) Zein Ul-Abidin, whose grandfather was Sharif Sultan Imam Ul-Alam Arpa, and by whose father was Maharaja Adinda Taup (first cousin of Sultan Pulalun) by whose father was Sayyid (Sharif) Nakhoda Perkasa Angging or Maharaja Anddin the grandson of Brunei’s very first Sultan Mohamad Shah through the latter’s son Sultan Ahmad “Amir Alatas-Uddin” who elected another son, Seri Ali, to have succeeded him, when sending his Nakhoda son as Maharaja (Anddin) in the Sulus.
His Highness’ forefathers and forebears never defaulted or acquies nor estopled nor tacitly surrendered, and never to sacrifice His Highness’ Seal and ancestral Flags of authority left by His Highness’ forefathers, their dignities and leaderships, to His highness standing as the rightful heir and Sultan of Sulu, its territories and territories as by consanguinity. The territories ruled by His Highness’ forefathers with the “light” that first shined upon us bringing the “Door to Mecca” in the establishing of Sultanates’ country and State in the basis of our religion-Islam, and not by war and terror.
His Highness addresses His peoples…”People Citizens hiban manga raayats sin Sultanate of Sulu/Mindanao and North Borneo, territories and territories as by consanguinity, pa manga kalasahan, gaus baugbug sin pamarinta hilah Islam amo in Sultanate sin lupah sug hiban sin manga sakup. Ayaw kamu mahukaw hiban magduwaruwa, magad ha pag unahan ku sabab karnah matampal na hiban matarang na aku, H.R.H. Sultan Sharif Maulana Paduka Ahmad Carpenter Arpa-V, in sabunnal Sultan sin kamu ha hulah natu kalasahan, magpasaplag sin kaadilan pamarinta.”
The Glorious and Holy Qur’an cites: “Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do righteous deeds, that He will assuredly make them to succeed the present rulers and grant them vicegerency (appointed Governance and as administrative deputy) in the lands just as He made those before them to succeed others”, XXIV.55 and;
Hadith (4543): “Fulfillment of the Covenant made with the Caliphs is imperative. The Caliph to whom allegiance is sworn in the first instance has shall established supremacy over those who assume powers (by Caliphates) later”.
These verses makes it clear to all, in having conferred to bestow Honor upon the Caliphate, that is, the reign and jurisdiction of a secular and Religious Sovereign Head of State. In this case, a Sovereign Head of a Monarchial Islamic (Muslim) State.
His Highness, the Sultan, to affect our cause, our State and country, in the way of Allah, that affirmative and positive answers would be truthfully delivered to its rightful government, the return of total sovereignty and total independence to the Sultanate of Sulu, and territories as by consanguinity.
His Highness’ sad sense of disparity between with once Muslims (Muslims who had deviated or reverted back to as before Islam came upon them and before the establishment of the Sultanate) who turned Kaffiric-vulgar and offensive, and between foreign administering powers upon us, His Highness is not included within their boundaries and/or pale of the making of their sovereignties upon our lands and territories, nor their glorious anniversary of July 4th, now June 12th. Their high independence only revealed the immeasurable distance from being once Muslims and between us. The blessings in which they today are enjoying are not rejoiced in common with us, the original peoples of these lands who are being classified as “minorities”. Their rich “inheritance”, justices, liberty, prosperity and independence are shared not by us. The “sun light” of the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898, liberation from 300 years of Spanish rule that has brought light and healing from Spanish atrocities and abuses, have instead, brought strides and death to the Muslim Sultanate lands in the Muslim national archipelago and to its peoples. This coming 12th June (priory 4th July) , the Philippine Republic rejoices, but His Highness must mourn and to strive for ours return of total independence.
Present GRP administration upon the Muslim National Archipelago, particularly, in the Mindanao and Sulu in dividing provinces into districts, and with some district further divided into two in the justifying reason/s of due to over 250,000 populace in one district, but might just be the real reason of evident Muslim majority in said district and why it should be further divided in keeping a-bay Muslims from becoming a majority. In overall scope, the Mindanao and Sulu are predominantly Muslims. But the GRP-local government’s basis is by populace per district, aside from other justification for more Budjetary allotment/s. Thus, when Muslim Populace becomes predominant in a certain predominantly non-Muslim province or district, allegedly, the more reason to divide or create another district in setting it in such a way non-Muslims may still be a majority.
Biases, discrimination, prejudices and compelling justifying principalities created against Muslims are, if not, “echoes” of the medieval Christian crusade and colonialism. It just might also be a very strong echo of the Christian Inquisition (as in the story of “Goya’s Ghost”), whereby the Inquisition jailed and tortured non-Christians in the attempt to convert the latter, in its mission for expansion and conquerorship.
So, presently a question does arise of the understanding of what had happened among some Muslims caught in the web of these “echoes”. Is there still no question of their psychological disposition as Muslims or so-called “ordinary Muslim” acclaiming of being a Muslim without practicing it as such in Islam. Their whatever degree of “Muslimness” already sets them apart as being Muslims who should be practicing its disposition in their daily lives, in its final analysis and even in Shari’a law.
To our fellow Muslims and Ummahs, we are a great people in the defense of our faith, and we must strive in good faith in the defense of our unalienable rights, our dignities that were deprived of complete and total sovereignty. Nonetheless, our country and State, still Existing within the purview of Philippine constitution. We need the return of our total sovereignty and independence, and to once again play a great part in the world and as a great nation once again.
The Philippine Republic’s preamble never depicted nor indicated the Sultanate’s historical facts as part of its preliminary statement in the making of the Philippine constitution, in the first Philippine Republic. Allegedly nor did Malaysia and Indonesia, as North Borneo-Sabah and Kalimantan was made part or their national territory, respectively, having created a principality of a plebiscite, as Malaysia had, which might not just be in accordance to the principle of self-determination (the accepted way out of colonialism) in the basis of false security, considering that North Borneo belongs to the Sulu Sultanate, the Sultan of Sulu.
Am your Sultan and sovereign head of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo-Sabah, whereby our country and nation under foreign sovereign jurisdictions and administrations, and as Sultan, have entered upon duties with absolutely no pledges (waiy aku piyagjanjian) of any kind preventing His Highness of protecting His peoples, basic human rights with singleness of a purpose, but a purpose for us all, our sovereignty founded in the basis of our religion-Islam and not by war and terror.
His Highness will live and re-live, again and again to do what His Highness do for His peoples; never to sacrifice His Highness’ Seal and ancestral Flags of authority, left by the dignity and authority of our forefathers. We shall not blink our eyes at the fact that our heritage, custom and tradition are in danger of being lost, by foreign power’s forceful acquiescence upon our lands, our nation and our sovereignty.
Within His Highness’s realm, in the saving of His faithful and loving peoples, His Highness will do acts of sovereignty and political will towards the return of total sovereignty and total independence of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo-Sabah and territories as by consanguinity.
In the protection of His Highness’s Royal rights and dignities, of His Highness’ Royal Immunity, as by the conference of Kings and Heads of State and government held in Rabat, and the two foreign minister’s conference held in Jeddah and Karachi; the Sultan of Sulu, with diplomatic immunity, is asserting the total recognition of His Highness’ existing State and country.
HIS HIGHNESS, THE SULTAN SULUK NEGARA, ADDRESSES HIS PEOPLES.
Pa manga raayats sin Royal Sultanate sin Lupah Sug hiban manga sakup, do maintain our stand (tumindog kita) in the protection of our Royal rights and dignities, our unalterable rights as Royal citizens domiciled throughout our territories and territories as by consanguinity (kinship-blood relations) far reaching our delimited territorial limits of North Borneo-Sabah, Kalimantan, Palawan, Tawi-tawi, Sulu, Basilan, Jambangan-Zamboanga (Sultanate Moro Capital) peninsula and the Mindanao-Maguindanao located within the Moro gulf, Sulu Sea, Makassar and Karimata straits.
As Vicegerent (appointed governance and administrative deputy) of mahasutsi, kalima lailaha ilallah, Allah, His Highness is on an honorable holy mission for His peoples, well being in striving to totally regained His Highness’ monarchial Islamic state and country.
Mura-murahan, pangayuun ku tuud kaniyo ha ngan sin mahatsutsi (kalmia lailaha ilallah) Allah, aku hambuuk ra kuman Sultan sin kamu, timunay sin kawajiban mangindaaki kaniyo manga kalasahan ku raayats.
Ibut-Ibut maglasa-lasihi kamu, magmaap-maapi kamu hiban baugbugi niyo in kapatut kiyatukbal katu ta niyo sin manga sila kamaasan natu ha tiranan sin Agama Islam hiban pamarinta kasultanan. Insha’Allah.
As for transport, His Highness hardly sets out on foot…..and wanders about His territories; for the concept of His highness as Sultan, is not for His Highness to be a “Man of the Peoples”, but rather elevated above the peoples as the symbol of Muslim dignity and of His Nation. His Highness’ cause is reflective of the needs of the peoples, the alleviation of the Sultanate State and country and its Sultan’s position as Head of State; to render to the world the recognition, thru ceremonial proclamation as the Sultan of His Highness’ constitutionally existing state, so to play a great part in the world as a great nation once again. Thus, to now name His Highness’ State as the Sultanate of Sulu Territories (Sultanate Suluk Negara), and territories as by consanguin